A major part of the state is claimed by the Republic of China, and the People’s Republic of China as the region of South Tibet. The major part of the state which is claimed by China, was temporarily occupied by Chinese forces during the 1962 war.
Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains is the sobriquet for the state in Sanskrit; it is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest of the North-eastern states known as the Seven Sister States. As in other parts of Northeast India, the people native to the state trace their origins to the Tibeto-Burman people.
Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has an area of 83,743 km2 The topography rapidly rises to 7000 m at its highest peak. Kangte, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. Numerous river valleys dissect the precipitous terrain of Arunachal. Some of the major rivers are Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Dibang, Lohit and Noa-Dihing rivers. Mountains till the Siang river are classified under the Eastern Himalayas mountain range. Between the Siang river and the Noa-Dihing river is classified as the Mishmi Hills that may be part of the Hengduan Shan, but the true extents of these mountains is unclear. South of the Noa-Dihing in Tirap and Longding districts, these mountains are parts of the Patkai Range. The rivers are fed by immense abundance of forest cover that absorb moisture and transfer it to subsurface flows. Summer melt water from snow caps also contribute to the volume of water.
Either or both Dong Basti and Vijaynagar basti in Arunachal Pradesh receives the first morning sun rays in the entire country, as the easternmost village of the country. The mountain ranges in Arunachal Pradesh are described as “the place where the sun rises” in historical indian texts and named the Aruna Mountains.
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The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. The low altitude 100 – 1500 m) have a Humid subtropical climate. High altitude and very high altitude areas (3500 – 5500 m) have a subtropical highland climate and alpine climate. Arunachal Pradesh receives 2,000 to 5,000 millimetres (79 to 197 in) of rainfall annually, 70 - 80% obtained between May and October
The speakers of major languages of the state according to the 2001 census are Nyishi (208,337), Adi (193,379), Bengali (97,149), Nepali (94,919), Hindi (81,186), Monpa (55,428), Assamese (51,551), Wancho (48,544), Tangsa (34,231), Mishmi (33,522), Mishing (33,381), Nocte (32,591), and Others (64,711)
1.255 million (2012)